Ant Genera Index

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The Main Ant Pages On Wayne's Word: Images Taken With Nikon & Sony Cameras
  Ant Genera Index        Introduction        Ant Page 1        Ant Page 2        Ant Page 3        Nikon        Sony  
San Diego County Ants:
  Owens Peak  
 
  Merriam Mtns  
 
  Palomar Mtn  
   
  Daley Ranch  
Alphabetical Index Of Ant Genera By Subfamily
An Index To images Of All Ant Genera On Wayne's Word
  Ant Genera Photographed By Alex Wild
  Discover Life Thumnails By Alex Wild
  Ants Of The Southwest By Dale Ward
  Ants Of California By Phil Ward, UC Davis
  Images Of Ant Subfamilies In Bug Guide
  Antweb: Images Of All Ant Subfamilies
  Antwiki: Keys & Descriptions Of Ants
  Ants From U.S. & Other Countries  #1   #2
  Arizona: Feb 2013: #1   #2   Oct 2013: #1   #2
  Arizona (Incl. Portal): May 2014:   #1   #2   #3
  Arizona (Incl. Cave Creek): Oct 2014:   #1   #2
  Salton Sea Images 2013-15:   #1   #2   #3   #4
  Images From Maui:  Maui #1  Maui #2  Maui #3
  Images From Borrego Valley  Mar 2015
  Images From Techachipi Road Trip  April 2015  
  Images From New Mexico Road Trip  July 2016  
  Arizona Ants: Oct 2012  Jan 2016  Jan 2017
    Scroll To Bottom Of Page For Introduction
      & How To Exterminate Argentine Ants
  
   
  Disclaimer: I am reasonably certain about most of the identifications, especially those verified by James Trager & Alex Wild. For some of the names I used cf. (compare with) because of the difficulty in separating very similar species. On others I simply placed the ants in their respective subgroups of closely-related species. Large, difficult genera often require a specialist for precise species verification. Although identifications from my photo images may be impossible without voucher specimens to examine, comments and/or suggestions about my identifications are welcome.
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OP = Ant Species Found On Owens Peak In San Marcos, CA

DR = Ant Species Found At Daley Ranch in Escondido, CA
    Subfamily Amblyoponinae: Reduced eyes; slender mandibles.

  1. Amblyopone pallipes  (Dracula Ant - Palomar Mtn State Park)

    Subfamily Dolichoderinae: One petiole node; no acidopore.

  2. Azteca constructor  (Azteca Ant From Cecropia Tree)
  3. Forelius mccooki  (Orange Desert Ant Marine Corps Miramar)
  4. Forelius pruinosus  (Orange Desert Ant--Owens Peak) OP, DR      
  5. Forelius pruinosus  (Orange Desert Ant Near Blythe)
  6. Forelius Unreported Species?  (Albuquerque, New Mexico)
  7. Dorymyrmex bicolor  (Pyramid Ant On Owens Peak) OP
  8. Dorymyrmex bicolor  (Pyramid Ant On Palomar Mtn)
  9. Dorymyrmex bicolor  (Pyramid Ant In Arizona)
  10. Dorymyrmex insanus  (Pyramid Ant, Merriam Mtns ) OP, DR
  11. Dorymyrmex insanus?  (Pyramid Ant, Portal AZ)
  12. Iridomyrmex cordatus  (Symbiont Of The Ant Plant)
  13. Linepithema humile  (Argentine Ant In San Marcos #1) OP, DR
  14. Linepithema humile  (Argentine Ant In San Marcos #2)
  15. Linepithema humile  (Argentine & Fire Ant Fighting)
  16. Liometopum luctuosum  (Tree Ant - Chiricahua Nat. Mon.)
  17. Liometopum occidentale  (Velvety Tree Ant - Idyllwild)
  18. Liometopum occidentale  (Velvety Tree Ant--Daley Ranch) DR
  19. Ochetellus glaber?  (Little Black Ant On Island Of Maui)
  20. Tapinoma melanocephalum  (Ghost Ant On Maui)
  21. Tapinoma sessile  (Black House Ant--Owens Peak) OP, DR
  22. Technomyrmex albipes  (White-Footed Ant On Maui 1)
  23. Technomyrmex albipes  (White-Footed Ant On Maui 2)

    Subfamily Ecitoninae (Dorylinae): Two petiole nodes; sting.

  24. Cerapachys biroi  (Queenless Clonal Raider Ant)
  25. Dorylus gribodoi  (Driver Ant or Siafu)
  26. Neivamyrmex cf. nyensis  (Army Ant--Superstitions, Ariz.)
  27. Neivamyrmex opacithorax  (Army Ant)

    Subfamily Formicinae: One petiole node; acidopore present.

  28. Anoplolepis gracilipes  (Yellow Crazy Ant On Maui 1)
  29. Anoplolepis gracilipes  (Yellow Crazy Ant On Maui 2)
  30. Brachymyrmex obscurior  (Rover Ant On Maui 1)
  31. Brachymyrmex obscurior  (Rover Ant On Maui 2)
  32. Brachymyrmex patagonicus  (Rover Ant)
  33. Camponotus dumetorum  (Carpenter Ant In Merriam Mts) OP
  34. Camponotus dumetorum  (Carpenter Ant On Owens Peak) OP
  35. Camponotus fragilis  (Orange Carpenter Ant) OP, DR
  36. Camponotus gigas  (Malaysian Giant Ant)
  37. Camponotus cf. modoc  (Western Carpenter Ant--Cave Creek, AZ)
  38. Camponotus cf. modoc  (Western Carpenter Ant--Truckee, CA)
  39. Camponotus ocreatus  (Carpenter Ant, Portal AZ )
  40. Camponotus semitestaceus  (Carpenter Ant--Daley Ranch) DR
  41. Camponotus cf. semitestaceus  (Carpenter Ant On Palomar Mtn)
  42. Camponotus pennsylvanicus  (Chesapeake Bay, Maryland )
  43. Camponotus variegatus  (Carpenter Ant On Maui)
  44. Formica francoeuri  (Julian Cemetery, California)
  45. Formica cf. francoeuri  (Cajon Pass, California)
  46. Formica gnava  (Pitfall Trap at Portal, Arizona)
  47. Formica integroides  (Thatching Ant - Prescott, AZ)
  48. Formica moki  (Gray Field Ant On Owens Peak) OP, DR
  49. Formica moki  (Field Ant At Daley Ranch) DR
  50. Formica oreas  (Field Ant or Wood Ant At Sage Hen Creek)
  51. Formica oreas  (Field Ant In Jeffrey Pine Forest, Truckee, CA)
  52. Formica subsericea  (Northern Field Ant from Ontario, Canada)
  53. Lasius cf. alienus  (Black Garden Ant from Ontario, Canada)
  54. Lasius niger  (Black Garden Ant from Boreal Latitudes)
  55. Lasius pallitarsis  (Field Ant on Palomar Mountain)
  56. Myrmecocystus cf. creightoni? (Honeypot Ant Cucamonga, CA)
  57. Myrmecocystus cf. creightoni? (Honeypot Ant Wrightwood, CA)
  58. Myrmecocystus cf. mendax?   (Honeypot Ant, Portal AZ )
  59. Myrmecocystus mexicanus (Honeypot Ant at Joshua Tree Nat Park)
  60. Myrmecocystus mexicanus (Honeypot Ant at Joshua Tree Nat Park)
  61. Myrmecocystus cf. mexicanus? (Honeypot Ant in Holbrook, Ariz)
  62. Myrmecocystus cf. mimicus?  (Honeypot Ant At Tehachapi, CA)
  63. Myrmecocystus mimicus  (Chaparral N of Escondido) DR
  64. Myrmecocystus cf. mimicus/flaviceps  (Honeypot Ant At Salton Sea)
  65. Myrmecocystus cf. mimicus/flaviceps  (Honeypot Craters At Salton Sea)
  66. Myrmecocystus cf. semirufus?  (Anza-Borrego Desert State Park)
  67. Myrmecocystus cf. semirufus?  (N. of Bishop at 6,000 ft Elevation)
  68. Myrmecocystus species?  (What Is Species At Salton Sea?)
  69. Myrmecocystus cf. testaceus?  (Daley Ranch, San Diego Co.) DR
  70. Myrmecocystus cf. wheeleri?  (Merriam Mtns, San Diego Co.) DR
  71. Oecophylla  (Edible Weaver Ants From Thailand)
  72. Paratrechina longicornis  (Long-Horned Crazy Ant In Ariz.)
  73. Paratrechina longicornis  (Long-Horned Crazy Ant On Maui)
  74. Plagiolepis alluaudi  (Little Yellow Ant On Maui)
  75. Plagiolepis alluaudi  (Little Yellow Ant On Maui)
  76. Polyergus vinosus  (Slave-Maker That Attacks Formica moki)
  77. Prenolepis imparis  (Winter Ant On Owens Peak #1) OP
  78. Prenolepis imparis  (Winter Ant On Owens Peak #2) OP

    Subfamily Myrmeciinae

  79. Myrmecia pilosula  (Jack Jumper Of Southern Australia)
  80. Myrmecia nigrocincta  (Bulldog Ant Of Southern Australia)

    Subfamily Myrmicinae: 2 petiole nodes; some have sting.

  81. Acromyrmex versicolor  (Arizona Leaf-Cutter Ant)
  82. Acromyrmex versicolor  (More Ariz Leaf-Cutter Ants)
  83. Acromyrmex versicolor  (Leaf-Cutter Ant Near Blythe)
  84. Aphaenogaster albisetosa  (Chiricahua Nat. Mon., AZ )
  85. Aphaenogaster cockerelli  (Long-Legged Ant)
  86. Aphaenogaster cockerelli (Stealing From Pogonomyrmex)
  87. Atta cephalotes  (Tropical Leaf-Cutter Ant)
  88. Atta sexdens  (Tropical Winged Leaf-Cutter Ant)
  89. Cardiocondyla mauritanica  (South Escondido)
  90. Cephalotes rohweri  (Arizona Turtle Ant = Glider Ant)
  91. Cephalotes varians  (Tropical Turtle Ant = Glider Ant)
  92. Crematogaster californica  (Acrobat Ant--Daley Ranch) DR
  93. Crematogaster  (Acrobat Ant On Owens Peak) OP, DR
  94. Crematogaster "x"  (Unverified Acrobat Ant, Portal AZ )
  95. Cyphomyrmex wheeleri  (Minute Fungus Growing Ant)
  96. Messor (Veromessor) andrei  (Black Harvester Ant) OP, DR
  97. Messor (Veromessor) pergandei  (Desert Harvester Ant)
  98. Monomorium floricola (Flower Ant In Biosphere 2)
  99. Monomorium pharaonis (Pharaoh Ant: Indoor Ant)
  100. Monomorium pharaonis (Pharaoh Ant On Maui)
  101. Pheidole cf. barbata (Big-Headed Ant at Dos Palmas)
  102. Pheidole cf. Pilifera-Group (Big-Headed Ant at Willcox)
  103. Pheidole megacephala (Big-Headed Ant On Maui)
  104. Pheidole cf. Pilifera-Group (P. yaqui in Borrego Palm Can.)
  105. Pheidole rhea?  (Unverified Minor Worker, Portal AZ )
  106. Pheidole tepicana  (Big-Headed Ant) by Alex Wild
  107. Pheidole vistana (Big-Headed Ant--Owens Peak) OP, DR
  108. Pheidole vistana (Battleground On Owens Peak) OP
  109. Pheidole vistana (Queen P. vistana in Ant Farm) OP
  110. Pheidole "x"  (Unverified Minor Worker, Portal AZ )
  111. Pogonomyrmex californicus  (California Harvester Ant)
  112. Pogonomyrmex barbatus  (Arizona Harvester Ant)
  113. Pogonomyrmex rugosus/barbatus  (Harvester Ant)
  114. Pogonomyrmex cf. rugosus  (Harvester Ant--Murrieta, CA)
  115. Pogonomyrmex cf. occidentalis  (Harvester Ant, Snowflake, AZ)
  116. Pogonomyrmex subnitidus  (Palomar Mtn State Park) OP, DR
  117. Pogonomyrmex  (Red Harvester Ant At Salton Sea)
  118. Solenopsis amblychila  (Fire Ant Queen--Daley Ranch) DR
  119. Solenopsis cf. aurea  (Fire Ant at Dos Palmas Oasis)
  120. Solenopsis invicta  (Imported S. American Fire Ant #1)
  121. Solenopsis invicta  (Imported S. American Fire Ant #2)
  122. Solenopsis molesta  (Thief Ant Queen In My Kitchen)
  123. Solenopsis molesta  (Thief Ant Worker At Daley Ranch) DR
  124. Solenopsis tenneseensis  (Thief Ant In Argentine Ant Midden)
  125. Solenopsis xyloni  (Native Southern Fire Ant #1) OP, DR
  126. Solenopsis xyloni  (Native Southern Fire Ant #2)
  127. Solenopsis xyloni  (Dark-Colored Colony In Arizona)
  128. Solenopsis xyloni (S. maniosa)  (Minor Worker, Portal AZ )
  129. Stenamma sp.  (Leaf Litter Ant, Daley Ranch) DR
  130. Temnothorax andrei  (Pitfall Trap at Daley Ranch) DR
  131. Temnothorax curvispinosus  (Acorn Ant) Antwiki.org
  132. Tetramorium caespitum Queen  (Elkton, Maryland )
  133. Tetramorium caespitum Workers  (Sparks, Nevada )
  134. Trachymyrmex arizonensis  (Leafcutter Ant, Portal AZ )
  135. Wasmannia auropunctata  (LIttle Fire Ant, Hawaiian Is. )

    Subfamily Paraponerinae: Powerful sting.

  136. Paraponera clavata  (Bullet Ant)
  137. See The Schmidt Sting Pain Index

    Subfamily Ponerinae: One petiole node; sting.

  138. Leptogenys falcigera  (Sickle-Jaw Ant On Maui)
  139. Odontomachus bauri  (Trap-Jaw Ant From Costa Rica)
  140. Odontomachus coquereli  (Trap-Jaw Ant)
  141. Odontomachus clarus  (Arizona Trap-Jaw Ant)
  142. Pachycondyla sp.  (Peruvian Andes: Machu Picchu)

    Subfamily Pseudomyrmecinae: 2 petiole nodes; long, thin body.

  143. Pseudomyrmex apache  (Amber-Colored Twig Ant) OP
  144. Pseudomyrmex ferruginea  (Swollen Thorn Acacia Ant)

    Other Ant Images

  145. Swarm Of Winged Ants Over Owens Peak OP
  146. Ants Embedded in 25 Million-Year-Old Amber

    Ant Related Images

  147. The Infamous Schmidt Sting Pain Index
  148. 50 Cal Links & Casing Near Salton Sea Ant Nests

  Note: The Velvet Ant Is Actually A Wingless Female Wasp  

 See The National Geographic Video: Wild City Of Ants 
 See Amazing BBC Video About Edward Wilson's Study Of Ants 
 BBC Video: Honeypot Ants (Myrmecocystus mimicus) In Horseshoe Canyon, AZ 

  See Techniques For Photographing Live Ants  

OP: Owens Peak North Of Palomar College, San Marcos, CA

View of the northeast slope of Owens Peak. I have identified 14 species of ants on this hillside.


Ant Compared With Wingless Wasp


Termite, Winged Ant, Small Wasp or Gnat?

The elbowed antennae and petiole node rules out a small wasp, gnat and termite. The pair of claspers at end of gaster indicate that this is a male ant.


Ants Compared With Termites

Termites belong to the insect order Isoptera. They are social insects with a well-developed caste system consisting of the fertile queen (original female of royal pair), king (original male of royal pair), workers (nymphs), and soldiers (modified workers with massive heads and enlarged mandibles). The name "Isoptera" is derived from "iso" (equal) and "ptera" (wing). Insects of this order have winged sexual adults with four membranous wings of the same approximate length. The immature nymphs feed on wood, much to the chagrin of home owners with wood frame houses. Termite guts contain flagellated protists that contain wood-digesting bacteria, which in turn contain cellulose-digesting enzymes. Termites are often confused with ants; however, the abdomen of termites is broadly joined to the thorax, whereas in ants it is constricted at the base and connected to the thorax by a narrow petiole. The antennae of termites are moniliform with segments resembling a minute string of beads. Antennae of ants are elbowed with a distinct bend. Ants and termites can readily be distinguished, even in 25 million-year-old amber from the Dominican Republic. Although they both have well-developed caste systems, termite workers and soldiers consist of individuals of both sexes, with all nymphs serving as workers. With the exception of haploid males (drones) in ants, the individuals of these castes in ant colonies are all females.

The massive head and mandibles of this rottenwood soldier are used to defend the colony against invading ants.

  See The Wayne's Word Termite Page  


Best Method Of Argentine Ant Eradication

Place outdoor ant bait stations such as Terro® along major ant trails in your yard. This is probably better than using insecticidal sprays. Smaller, indoor bait stations are also effective placed along ant trails in your home (out of the reach of children and pets). The active ingredients of Terro® is 5.40 percent sodium tetraborate decahydrate (Borax) which is lethal to ants. This salt upsets their digestive system and causes death due to dehydration and starvation. According to Jonathan Hatch ("How to Get Rid of Argentine Ants" ), dehydration and recrystallization of the boric acic (borax?) lacerates the digestive system of ants and their larvae. There are many recipes on the Internet that include mixing borax with a sugary solution. Terro bait stations contain this mixture in convenient disposable plastic trays. It is important for the ants to carry the liquid back to their nest. Borax recipes only contain about 5 percent borax so that ants are not killed immediately. One tablespoon of borax in a cup of water is approximately a 5% solution. You must be patient--this treatment may take several days to a week. In fact, you may need to replenish you bait stations! Some websites state that boric acid is a more effective ant insecticide, but this is debatable. Boric acid is made by reacting borax (sodium tetraborate decahydrate) with an inorganic acid, such as hydrochloric acid (HCl).

Synthesis of Boric Acid From Borax (Sodium Tetraborate Decahydrate) and Hydrochloric Acid:

Na2B4O7.10 H2O + 2 HCL → 4 B(OH)3 [or H3BO3] + 2 NaCl + 5 H2O

One simple on-line recipe calls for one cup of sugar, one tablespoon of borax and 1/2 cup of water. These values can be doubled for a larger yield. The borax concentration is about 10%, but it is apparently very effective. Place mixture in saurcepan and bring to a boil for three minutes. Cool and serve to Argentine ants. Thick syrupy mass can be placed in jar lids so that ants can easily climb over rim. Or, place inside empty soda cans and lay cans on side.

Left: Crystals of borax (sodium tetraborate decahydrate) photographed on black rangetop oven with Nikon SLR and ring flash. Image color was inverted using Adobe Photoshop. Right: Microscopic view of crystals photographed through compound microscope with substage illumination (magnification 100X). Unlike cubical grains of ordinary table salt (NaCl), the crystals are generally polygonal and prismatic (multifaceted) with sharp edges and points. See comparison of crystals in next image.

Comparison of the crystals of borax, table sugar (sucrose) and ordinary table salt (NaCl).

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