Arboretum Images 7

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Palomar College Arboretum Images 7: Shrubs #1
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Borage Family (Boraginacae)

Pride of Madeira (Echium fastuosum = E. candicans), a striking shrub native to the Canary Islands. The borage family includes many species of wildflowers in California, including white forget-me-nots (Cryptantha and Plagiobothrys) and yellow fiddlenecks (Amsinckia). Some of these occur in the Arboretum and adjacent coastal sage scrub after spring rains. The family also includes a beautiful hardwood tree that is native to the Caribbean Islands (Cordia).

  A Caribbean Hardwood Tree In The Boraginaceae  
A Common Wildflower In The Boraginaceae

Soothing Medicinal Teas Made From Flowers of Echium & Borago

Borage (Borago officinalis), type genus for the family Boraginaceae and naturalized annual in San Diego County. The leaves & flowers are eaten in salads and brewed into tea.

A. Gaozaban (Echium amoenum). The dried flowers are used for a popular medicinal tea in Iran, India and Pakistan. The tea is a rich source of antioxidants, including rosmarinic acid and bioflavonoids. Borage is sometimes confused with gaozaban, but the flowers are quite different. The tubular corollas of gaozaban are slightly irregular (zygomorphic) compared with the regular, star-shaped flowers of borage. These differences can even be determined in dried, pressed flowers. B. The dried flowers of borage (Borago officinalis) are also brewed into a soothing tea.


Mint Family (Lamiaceae)

Westringia 'wynyabbie' (Westringia eremicola x W. fruticosa). This interesting shrub near the main entrance sign is a hybrid between two native Australian species. It is also called "coastal rosemary," but true rosemary is Rosmarinus officinalis. The latter species also grows near the entrance sign.


Mallow Family (Malvaceae)

Cotton rose (Hibiscus mutabilis), a beautiful shrub native to China. In the genus Hibiscus, the ovary develops into a capsule containing many seeds, unlike the schizocarp fruits of Lavatera and Malva. The five style branches each terminate in a capitate stigma. There are at least 200 species of Hibiscus, including some rare endemics in the Hawaiian Islands. The small ant is an Argentine ant (Iridomyrmex humilis).

The seed capsule of cotton rose (Hibiscus mutabilis), a beautiful shrub native to China. In the genus Hibiscus, the ovary develops into a capsule containing many seeds, unlike the schizocarp fruits of Lavatera and Malva. Each seed is covered with fine hairs. In fact, the genus Hibiscus is closely related to the genus Gossypium (cotton). In Gossypium, the seeds are covered with long epidermal hairs that are spun into cotton thread.

Left: Turk's cap (Malvaviscus arboreus), a native shrub from the southern U.S. to South America. Right: Bush mallow (Malacothamnus fasciculatus), a native shrub in the coastal sage scrub surrounding the Palomar College Arboretum. This beautiful shrub also appears within the Arboretum.

Hibiscus taiwanensis), a beautiful shrub native to Taiwan. There are at least 200 species of Hibiscus, including some rare endemics in the Hawaiian Islands.

See Beach Hibiscus: A Textile Plant
  See Flower Of Another Beach Hibiscus  
See The Seed Capsule (Boll) Of Cotton
More Information About Argentine Ant


Annatto Family (Bixaceae)

The spiny red fruits of achiote (Bixa orellana), a large shrub native to tropical America. The seeds contain bixin, a bright red carotenoid pigment that was used to dye clothing during ancient times. Today the dye is used for food coloring and as body paint by South American Indians.

  More Information About Achiote  


Rock Rose Family (Cistaceae)

Rock rose (Cistus x purpureus), a hybrid between C. ladanifer and C. creticus.


Sunflower Family (Asteraceae)

Boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera), a South African evergreen shrub that is naturalized in the hills of coastal sage scrub adjacent to Palomar College in San Diego County, California. This shrub has become a serious naturalized weed in Australia, forming massive thickets in all southern Australian states. It has also become an invasive weed in New Zealand.

  More Information About Boneseed  

A South African garden perennial that is naturalized throughout coastal San Diego County. It is listed in the Jepson Manual as Gazania linearis, although it also resembles G. rigens and is undoubtedly of hybrid origin.

Velvet groundsel (Senecio petasitis)

  The Enormous & Diverse Genus Senecio  

Mexican daisy tree (Montanoa bipinnatifida.)

Female coyote brush (Baccharis pilularis) in the coastal sage scrub adjacent to the Palomar College Arboretum. The leaf shape and venation separate this species from broom baccharis (B. sarothroides), although I have observed some individuals resembling the latter species in the hills bordering Palomar College. The leafy bracts of the fruiting inflorescence are obovate and toothed, separating coyote brush from the closely related B. emoryi.

Close-up view of a female coyote brush (Baccharis pilularis) in the Palomar College Arboretum. The obovate, toothed leaves (bracts) of the fruiting inflorescence (red arrow) and length of pappus separate this species from B. emoryi.

  The Enormous & Diverse Sunflower Family  
Parachute Achenes Of Salsify & Dandelion


Waterleaf Family (Hydrophyllaceae)

Left: Flowering branch of Wigandia caracasana in the Palomar College Arboretum. Note the dense, glistening hairs (trichomes) on the stem. Right: Detached flowers (corollas) of Wigandia. The petals are united (connate) into a broad, bell-shaped corolla with five spreading lobes (petals) and with five stamens attached to the inner corolla tube, one stamen inserted between each lobe. The middle corolla is inverted to show that the petals are completely fused into a tube.

  More Information About Wigandia  


Myrtle Family (Myrtaceae)

Calothamnus quadrifidus, a bottlebrush relative native to southwestern Australia. Because the flowers emerge on one side of the stem only, it is sometimes called "one-sided bottlebrush." The fragrant, resinous leaves superficially resemble the needlelike leaves of a true fir (Abies); however, they are unrelated and belong to entirely different plant divisions.

Darwinia citriodora, a low-growing shrub endemic to southwestern Australia. The generic name commemorates Dr. Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802), grandfather of Charles Darwin. According to the Rules of International Botanical Nomenclature, this is the only genus in the entire plant kingdom that may carry the name Darwinia. The specific epithet "citriodora" refers to the citrus-scented foliage and is the derivation of the common name "scent myrtle."

Darwinia citriodora with flower buds.


Darwinia citriodora with mature flowers.

  Another Shrub in Arboretum Named After Charles Darwin