Arthropods 3

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Southern California Arthropods (Mostly) #3: Butterflies & Moths (Order Lepidoptera)
© W.P. Armstrong 15 April 2009
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Families Of Butterflies

Brush-Footed Butterflies (Family Nymphalidae)

Painted Lady (Vanessa cardui)

Dorsal view of painted lady (Vanessa cardui).

The painted lady (Vanessa cardui) belongs to the same family of butterflies as the monarch (Danaus plexippus). Like the monarch, this species migrates in large numbers through California, particularly after a wet winter. Unlike the monarch, painted ladies do not have a spectacular mass return trip in the fall; or at least their return trip is not as widely publicized. However, sufficient numbers of these butterfies apparently return in order to maintain the population. Migration generally occurs during February and March in a northwest direction from desert regions of the United States and northern Mexico. Their flight may reach 30 miles per hour, and individuals may fly more than 100 miles in a day. They fly six to twelve feet above the ground and often hit the windshields of cars. The yellow splatch on your window is their fat supply for the long journey. They typically rise over large obstacles such as buildings, rather than flying around them. According to Arthur Shapiro (Professor of Evolution and Ecology at UC Davis), the butterflies are migrating from their winter breeding grounds on the Mexican border to the Central Valley and foothills, where they will breed, feed and lay eggs. The trip takes roughly three days in good weather. The resulting caterpillars feed on various weeds, such as thistles, mallows and fiddlenecks (Amsinckia). Butterflies resulting from breeding in the Central Valley region will migrate northward to breed again in the Pacific Northwest.

This is the most widely distributed butterfly on earth, and is reported from all continents except Australia and Antarctica. According to Dr. Shapiro, painted ladies winter in North Africa and migrate to Europe for the summer, sometimes reaching as far north as Scandinavia. The bristly caterpillars commonly feed on cheeseweed (Malva parviflora) in vacant fields of southern California. They also feed on various species of thistles throughout their range. Two similar species in southern California are the west coast lady (V. annabella) and the Virginia lady (V. virginiensis).

Ventral view of painted lady (Vanessa cardui).

Painted lady (Vanessa cardui) sipping nectar from flowers of Rhaphiolepis indica.


Monarch Butterfly (Danaus plexippus)
Female Monarch butterfly.

Monarch larva (caterpillar) and chrysalis (pupa). Unlike moths, butterfly larvae do not spin cocoons.
Monarch butterflies have a remarkable migration cycle each year. Since they cannot survive the cold winters of the northern United States and Canada they must migrate thousands of miles in order to complete their life cycle. Unlike birds, the Monarchs who go south do not return where they were born. It is their offspring who make this long, arduous journey. All of the Monarchs east of the Rocky Mountains overwinter on forested mountain tops in central Mexico within the Transvolcanic Range. All of the Monarchs west of the Rockies travel south along the Pacific Coast, where they overwinter in trees from north of San Francisco to San Diego. They are distasteful to some predators because of toxic chemicals ingested by the larvae while feeding on their host milkweeds (Asclepias).

  The Monarch Butterfly: An Example of Mullerian Mimicry  

Male monarch butterfly at Huntington Botanical Gardens in San Marino, California. Note the black spot (scent gland) on one of the veins in each hind wing. Males use the pheromones produced by these glands to make themselves attractive to females. Females have thicker veins and no black dots.

Chalcedon Checkerspot (Euphydryas chalcedona)
on western choke-cherry Prunus virginiana var. demissa


Metalmark Family (Family Riodinidae)

Behr's Metalmark (Apodemia mormo virgulti)

Behr's metalmark (Apodemia mormo virgulti), a small butterfly with a wingspan of 2.5 cm, is an indicator of coastal sage scrub. The caterpillar feeds on wild buckwheat (Eriogonum fasciculatum). These butterflies were hilltopping on Owens Peak north of Palomar College (10 September 2010).


Swallowtail Butterfly Family (Papilionidae)

Larva of the anise swallowtail butterfly (Papilio zelicaon) feeding on its favorite plant, sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). When disturbed it rears up and exposes two orange-colored fleshy horns behind the head. The horns produce a musty odor which presumambly is distasteful to predators. The quick appearance of the horns might also discourage or startle a small predator.

An adult western tiger swallowtail butterfly (Papilio rutulus) resting on the foliage of a Montezuma bald cypress (Taxodium mucronatum).

Adult giant swallowtail butterfly (Papilio cresphontes). This species has a conspicuous yellow band across the forewings, distinctive yellow spots across the hind wings, and yellow eyespots in the tails.

  See Pipeline Swallowtail Larva & Adult  


Skipper Family (Hesperiidae)

Common skipper (Hylephila phyleus), also called fiery skipper and lawn skipper.


Blue, Copper & Hairstreak Family (Lycaenidae)

Marine blue (Leptotes marina) photographed at night with flash.


Families of Moths

Plume Moth Family (Pterophoridae)

Plume Moth (Pterophoridae).

Plume moths have a distinctive appearence when at rest. The narrow wings are folded together and are held horizontally at right angles to their slender body, superficially resembling a glider. In flight, the wings open into several featherlike divisions or plumes. The larvae of a local southern California species (Adaina amrosiae) feed on ragweed (Ambrosia psilostachya).


Clothes Moth Family (Tineidae)

Beware Of The Case-Making Clothes Moth!

This is not a caddisfly! It was found on the bathroom floor at Wayne's Word. It is a case-making clothes moth (Tinea pellionella) in the family Tineidae. The brown-headed larva spins a silken case that is open at both ends. The case in the above image is covered with fine sand and debris, and superficially resembles a caddisfly case. The flattened case is about 10-11 mm long (3/8 to 1/2 inch). When crawling, the larva's head, thorax, and three pairs of legs protrude out of the case, and drag it along. According to Internet sources, the larva feeds on a variety of material, including hair, fur, silk, felt, feathers, woolen clothing, upholstered furniture and carpets. It apparently prefers darkness and soiled clothing, and is not fond of synthetic fabrics, such as nylon and polyesters. See the following image to see what it ate in a simple test performed at Wayne's Word. Photo taken with Sony T-9.

This clothes moth larva was presented with seven potential food choices: A. Black dyed silk, B. Heavy raw silk, C. Flax flake cereal, D. Linen, E. Cotton, F. Red wool, and G. Oatmeal cereal. After crawling to several different textile samples, the larva selected the Quaker oatmeal. It proceeded to feed on the oatmeal with its head protruding out of its protective case (yellow arrow). Although it is called a clothes moth, it did not seem interested in the textile samples. Photo taken with Nikon D-90 and SB-600 flash in a dimly lit room. Under prolonged bright light using photoflood lamps and a light box, the larva withdrew into its case.

Close-up view of clothes moth larva on a piece of red wool.


Bagworm Moth Family (Psychidae).

Bagworm moth cases on statue in Wisconsin. Image courtesy of Mary Ann Wojtyla.
Bagworm Moth: Family Psychidae

The larva (caterpillar) of this moth (order Lepidoptera) decorates (camouflages) its silken cocoon with materials from its environment, including conifer needles, pieces of twigs, leaves, lichens and grains of sand. The unique cases are often characteristic for each species. In fact, this family of moths are often called "case moths." Depending on the species, bagworm cases range in size from less than 1 cm to 15 cm (6 inches). They are usually innocuous to humans, although some cases can be rather unsightly on ornamentals. Some bagworm larvae are pests of trees and shrubs because they feed on the leaves. Caddisfly larvae of the insect order Trichoptera make very similar cocoons decorated with materials from their aquatic environment.

  Caddisflies (Order Trichoptera)  

Left: Illustration by Edward Julius Detmold. Plate from Fabre's Book of Insects (1921). Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.


Sphinx Moth Family (Sphingidae)

White-lined sphinx moth (Hyles lineata). Left: Larva in Borrego Springs feeding on brown-eyed evening primrose (Camissonia claviformis ssp. piersonii). Like the tomato hornworm (Manduca sexta), the larva (called a hornworm) has a horn-like projection at its posterior end. Although formidable in appearance, the spine is harmless and is apparently only "for show" to discourage predators. Like the tomato hornworm, the larva burrows into the ground to pupate; however, the pupa lacks the peculiar "jug handle" of the tomato hornworm. During spring with sufficient winter rainfall and abundant wildflowers, these caterpillars literally swarm on desert vegetation. They have a voracious appetite for a variety of wildflowers, and will even feed on some cultivated species. Right: Adult moth taking off from a light box. The common name refers to the broad, oblique stripe running from the base to the tip of the forewing; the stripe is interrupted by numerous transverse white streaks. The hind wing is pink with black at the base and margins. The name "sphinx moth" refers to the alarm posture of the larvae. With its anterior end reared back and head tucked under, it suggests the famous Sphinx edifice in Egypt.

Immature larva of (Hyles lineata) on the leaf of Gazania rigens var. leucolaena.

Hyles lineata Hovering While Feeding On Penstemon Flowers
Hyles lineata Larva Feeding On Wildflowers In Burned Area


Dorsal view of (Manduca sexta) with its wings fully extended. Note the 6 orange spots on the moth's abdomen. The 6th spot is barely discernible. A closely related species (M. quinquemaculata) has 5 orange spots on its abdomen.

Click on the photograph to see camouflaged larva on a light box.

Larva of hawkmoth (Manduca sexta) in its classic "sphinx pose." This is actually a fright posture with the front end raised up and head tucked under, suggesting the famous Sphinx edifice in Egypt. The larva is camouflaged by color and disruptive markings.

Larva of hawkmoth (Manduca sexta) feeding on foliage and stems of 'Anaheim' chile pepper (Capsicum chilense), a member of the nightshade family (Solanaceae) along with tomatoes.

Larva of hawkmoth (Manduca sexta), better known as a "tomato worm." The head is on far left.

A Hawkmoth That Feeds On Jimsonweed & Tomatoes


Ceanothus Silk Moth (Family Saturniidae)

Lateral view of an adult ceanothus silk moth (Hyalophora euryalus).

Dorsal view of an adult ceanothus silk moth (Hyalophora euryalus).
More Information About The Ceanothus Silk Moth


Yucca Moths (Family Prodoxidae)

Please Go To Article About The Yucca & Yucca Moth


Jumping Bean Moth (Family Olethreutidae)

Please Go To Article About Mexican Jumping Beans


References:

  1. Evans, A.V. 2007. Field Guide to Insects and Spiders of North America. Sterling Publishing Co., Inc. New York, New York.

  2. Hogue, C.L. 1993. Insects of the Los Angeles Basin. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County.

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