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We have received hundreds of requests from various organizations, agencies and individuals to use photos and information from Wayne's Word on their web sites and in published newsletters, compact discs, books, etc. All of the articles and 99.9% of all the photos and illustrations in Wayne's Word are copyright protected and may not be used in other on-line, CD or printed publications without our expressed written permission. This includes the display of our images and illustrations in their original form, or electronically altered form, on other web sites. For anyone interested in this material, you may place hyperlinks (but no frames) to anchor tags on Wayne's Word pages from your web sites. Please refer to waynes-word.com for information on high resolution .tif images available for publications.

Send An E-Mail Message To Wayne's Word:
Due To The Overwhelming Number Of Messages & Spam Sent To Wayne's Word,
and With A Minimal Staff Of Only Two Humans, Replies May Not Be Forthcoming.

Print Pages Without Cropping Words On Right Margin:

I decided to set the width of my Wayne's Word pages so they display better on higher resolution monitors. Without width limitations, paragraphs extend too far across the monitor, making them difficult to read. The downside of this change is that printed pages may be missing a few letters at the end of each sentence. The only way to get around this problem is to cut and paste the Wayne Word pages into a blank Microsoft Word page (or Word Perfect page). Simply highlight all the paragraphs of a Wayne's Word page with your mouse. Press Control-C. Open Microsoft Word. Press Control-V. All of the paragraphs and images should appear in your Word document. Now you can print or save your Word document. You can even delete the images in Word so that only the text is printed. Simply right click on each image and select "cut." This uses up a lot less toner and pages.

Another suggestion is to remove (delete) the following opening table code from the top of the page:

With a text editor or with your browser, open the source code so that all of the html code appears. Then delete the first four lines of a table at the top of the page down to the HTML tag. Do not delete the HTML tag. This should allow your pages to print normally on most printers. The reason I have this opening table at the top of each page is to set the browser display width to 740 pixels. The paragraphs display much better, especially when using high resolution monitors.


How To Cite Wayne's Word Articles In Your Term Paper:

The following examples show how to cite references if you take information from Wayne's Word articles. If you are quoting or paraphrasing sentences directly from an article, W.P. Armstrong and the date of the article should precede or follow the sentence or paragraph. If the article has no date or volume number, see if it is dated under Wayne's Word quarterly articles, Noteworthy Plants monthly articles, Trivia articles, or Lemnaceae On-line. If you can't find dates for specific articles, use the revision Update at the bottom of the Wayne's Word home page or look it up in the Index

Alsomitra macrocarpa has the largest wingspan of any flying seed in the world (Armstrong, 1999).

According to Armstrong (1999), Alsomitra macrocarpa has the largest wingspan of any flying seed in the world.

In your bibliography, cite all the references used in your term paper. You may cite the references alphabetically by author's names. The following are some examples of how to cite Wayne's Word articles in your bibliography. Remember that these are only suggestions, and there are other methods of citing articles from the World Wide Web. In fact, your professor may have specific instructions for citing references. For more information, refer to: Harris, R. 2000. A Guidebook To The Web. Dushkin/McGraw-Hill, Guilford, Connecticut.

Two examples of citations from recent botanical journals: Madrono Vol. 54 (2): 187-198 (2007) and Fremontia Vol. 37 (2): 20-27 (2009):

   Chester, T., W. Armstrong, and K. Madore. 2007. Brodiaea santarosae. Available at: http://tchester.org/plants/analysis/brodiaea/santarosae.html.

   Armstrong, W.P. 2007. Brodiaea Species in San Marcos. Accessed at http://waynesword.palomar.edu/vernal1d.htm.

In my opinion, the above two citations should include the date you accessed the on-line article. See the following examples:


Citing Wayne's Word Using The Date You Accessed Article

Use The Author Name & Date That Appears On The Article. If there is no date on the article, use the current date for Wayne's Word under Update. This is probably the most universally accepted way to cite a web page article.

1. Armstrong, W.P. 2005. "The Identification of Brodiaea Specimen #662 From Otay Mesa." Available at: http://waynesword.palomar.edu/vernal2c.htm. Accessed 14 March 2007.

2. Armstrong, W.P. 2006 "Does Brodiaea jolonensis Occur in San Diego County?" Available at: http://waynesword.palomar.edu/vernal2.htm. Accessed 14 March 2007.

3. Armstrong, W.P. 2007 "Brodiaea Taxa Listed For Southern California." Available at: http://waynesword.palomar.edu/vernal13.htm. Accessed 26 March 2007.


Citing The Entire Wayne's Word Web Site:
(Use The Current Date For Wayne's Word Under Update)

4. Armstrong, W.P. 2001. Wayne's Word: 9 May 2001. http://waynesword.palomar.edu/index.htm (12 June 2001).

In the above example, 9 may 2001 is the revision update for Wayne's Word. The 12 June 2001 in parentheses is the date you accessed Wayne's Word on-line.


Citing The Entire Lemnaceae On-Line Web Site:
(Use The Current Date For Wayne's Word Under Update)

5. Armstrong, W.P. 2001. Wayne's Word Lemnaceae On-Line: 12 May 2001. http://waynesword.palomar.edu/1wayindx.htm (12 June 2001).

In the above example, 12 may 2001 is the revision update for Wayne's Word. The 12 June 2001 in parentheses is the date you accessed Wayne's Word on-line.


Citing A Wayne's Word Quarterly Article With Date & Volume:

6. Armstrong, W.P. 1999. "Plants of Jurassic Park: Plants That Lived When Dinosaurs Roamed The Earth." Wayne's Word: Vol. 8 No. 3 Fall 1999. http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ww0803.htm (12 June 2001).

In the above example, Vol. 8 No. 3 Fall 1999 is listed for the article. The 12 June 2001 in parentheses is the date you accessed the article on-line.


Citing A Wayne's Word Monthly Article With Date:

7. Armstrong, W.P. 1999. "Blowing in the Wind: Seed & Fruit Dispersal By Wind." Wayne's Word Noteworthy Plants: February 1999. http://waynesword.palomar.edu/plfeb99.htm (12 June 2001).

In the above example, February 1999 is listed for the article. The 12 June 2001 in parentheses is the date you accessed the article on-line.


Citing Other Undated Wayne's Word Articles:
(Use The Current Date For Wayne's Word Under Update)

8. Armstrong, W.P. 2001. "Plant Fibers: Fibers For Paper, Cordage & Textiles." Wayne's Word: 9 May 2001. http://waynesword.palomar.edu/traug99c.htm (12 June 2001).

9. Armstrong, W.P. 2001. "Economic Plant Photographs # 10: Edible Palm Fruits." Wayne's Word: 9 May 2001. http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ecoph10.htm (12 June 2001).

In the above two examples, 9 may 2001 is the revision update for Wayne's Word. The 12 June 2001 in parentheses is the date you accessed these articles on-line.


A Brief History of Wayne's Word

The original Wayne's Word articles were published on-line in the format of a quarterly natural history newsletter. The earliest articles were written in a lite (tongue in cheek), humorous and satirical fashion. Subsequent articles became more informative with detailed information, references and images. The first quarterly article (Volume 3 Number 3) appeared in fall of 1994. Another monthly newsletter called Noteworthy Plants appeared in October of 1995. The monthly articles were dedicated to various natural history topics brought to professor Armstrong by his inquisitive students. Lemnaceae On-Line was original published on-line through Oregon State University. It was moved to Wayne's Word at Palomar College in 1998. During the last decade, Wayne's Word has grown into a large website to supplement professor Armstrong's general biology and botany courses at Palomar College:

         Biology 101
   General Biology   
           Botany 110
  Plant Identification   
         Botany 115
   Plants & People   

Since the content of Wayne's Word has grown to accomodate Professor Armstrong's classes in the Life Sciences Department at Palomar College, and since the format is no longer that of a newsletter, the website is now called a textbook of natural history. It emphasizes topics in biology and botany, with special emphasis in ecology, adaptations and the economic importance of plants in our daily lives. To navigate through major sections of this large website, please click on the color tabs at the top of the pages. Each of these tabs is further subdivided into additional color tabs, alphabetical menus and pull-down menus.

Hippo cookie from Portugal. It illustrates the advantage of nostrils
facing upward, especially when standing in water up to your head.

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